Navigating the State of UK Environmental Data

Winter 2024

In the landscape of environmental data in the UK, notable strides have been made, marked by the establishment of the Geospatial Commission and the proliferation of open data initiatives. Technologies like satellites, drones, and movements like citizen science have significantly expanded our ability to collect and analyse environmental data. However, challenges persist, including data gaps, issues with standardisation, and privacy concerns. This article explores the current state of environmental data in the UK, highlighting both progress and existing hurdles in our journey toward a more comprehensive and sustainable understanding of our ecosystems, an understanding we all need in the fight against climate collapse and the biodiversity crisis.

The Good

Golden Age for Open Data: In the realm of environmental data, the UK finds itself amidst a golden age. The establishment of the Geospatial Commission in 2018 marked a turning point, ushering in a strategy to unleash the treasure trove of location data held by public bodies. Entities like the OS, Defra, and the Met Office have paved the way, offering online portals and APIs (application processing interfaces) for businesses and individuals to tap into a vast array of open environmental data. The Defra data services platform alone boasts over 12,000 datasets, providing a rich source for analytical endeavours.

Remote Data Collection Revolution: Advancements in satellite technology, drone capabilities, and the Internet of Things (IoT) have revolutionised data collection. Satellites and drones (armed with multi-spectral imaging), and IoT sensors capture an unprecedented volume of data without physical presence. The data encompasses everything from earth’s surface imagery to digital elevation models and real-time river flow and water quality monitoring. As emerging technologies like low-earth orbit satellites and autonomous drones take the stage, the scale and resolution of environmental data are poised for exponential growth before we even mention the impact of….

Big Data and AI: In a landscape inundated with data, the rise of machine learning offers an exciting next chapter in our understanding of the natural world. Data-driven algorithms are now deployed to analyse and classify remotely sensed data on a scale previously deemed impossible. Projects like Living England showcase the power of this synergy, where satellite imagery and field data, combined with machine learning, create national-scale environmental datasets, continuously evolving and improving with each iteration.

Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing: Beyond institutional channels, citizen science and crowdsourcing initiatives are contributing to the richness of environmental data. Engaging the public in data collection, platforms like iNaturalist and citizen weather stations enable a decentralized approach to monitoring, fostering a more comprehensive understanding of local ecosystems.

Interdisciplinary Collaboration: The synergy of diverse disciplines, from ecology to technology, is fostering a holistic approach to data analysis. Cross-disciplinary collaboration ensures that environmental data is not just a numbers game but a nuanced representation of complex ecological interactions. This interdisciplinary approach enriches datasets with qualitative insights often overlooked in purely quantitative analyses.

Data Visualization Tools: The rise of sophisticated data visualization tools has empowered researchers, policymakers, and the public to interact with and comprehend complex datasets in new and increasingly interesting ways. From Geographic Information System (GIS) platforms to interactive dashboards and mobile applications, these tools make environmental data more accessible, fostering a broader understanding and engagement with the information.

The Bad / Ugly

Darker Shades of Data: Amidst the data abundance, shadows and gaps persist. The condition of half of Wales’ protected sites remains unknown, and the last comprehensive, high-resolution habitat survey dates back to 1991. Aging or absent data poses challenges in identifying areas needing restoration, establishing ecological baselines, and comprehending temporal changes within sites.

Boundaries as Barriers: Political boundaries prove to be formidable obstacles to seamless data collection and analysis. With sites spanning England, Scotland, and Wales, the UK’s environmental datasets sometimes come in triplicate, each tailored to its respective nation. Differences in collection methods or structures further complicate cross-portfolio comparisons. Nature pays no heed to borders; neither should the data we collect in seeking to understand it.

Standardisation: It’s extremely hard to quantify nature. Assigning 1s and 0s to the natural world can be a divisive topic (although we find the challenge fascinating), but without standardised measuring and reporting, it’s impossible to quantify environmental loss (or gain) or to easily compare one location with another. We’ve experienced this first-hand through our use of ecological consultants for our environmental baselining work at each site. While the standard of consultants we use is very high, each often has a unique way of recording environmental information which has been challenging to collate into a single portfolio-level dataset. We’re learning now to create our own standard for data collection and monitoring in this space and, in the future, intend to share these standards wider to help improve those across the sector.

Data Privacy Concerns: As data collection expands, so do concerns about privacy. In the pursuit of detailed environmental information, personal data may inadvertently be collected and / or exposed. Balancing the need for comprehensive datasets with the imperative to protect individual privacy poses a significant challenge that demands careful consideration and robust safeguards.

Data Silos and Accessibility Gaps: While there is a wealth of data, accessibility is not uniform. Data silos, where information is compartmentalised and not easily shared, hinder the collective understanding of environmental issues (and opportunities). Bridging these silos and ensuring equitable access to data is crucial for a comprehensive and inclusive approach to environmental planning and management.

Ethical Considerations in AI: As machine learning takes centre stage in data analysis, ethical considerations come to the fore. The algorithms shaping our environmental datasets must be transparent, unbiased, and ethically sound – appreciating some would ask the same questions about human-led approaches. Ensuring that AI does not inadvertently perpetuate or exacerbate environmental injustices is a challenge that demands ongoing scrutiny and refinement.

The Complex Path Ahead

Long-Term Data Sustainability: The sustainability of long-term datasets is a pressing concern. Ensuring that environmental data collection is not just a short-term endeavour requires continued commitment, both in terms of funding and technological advancements. A robust, sustained effort is necessary to monitor changes over extended periods, providing invaluable insights into the evolving state of the environment. I’m left wondering if this perhaps is a problem ultimately better solved by the private sector in the same way that large-scale data collection and analysis has transformed sporting analytics in recent years.

Global Collaboration and Standardisation: Environmental challenges transcend borders, making global collaboration imperative. Harmonizing data collection methodologies and fostering international standards would enable seamless (or at least improved) collaboration, ensuring a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of global environmental trends.

The Wish List: How We Can Improve Data and How You Can Help

Enhanced Data Quality:

Wish: Strive for continuous improvement in data quality and ensure regular monitoring and resurveying to understand change over time.

Your Role: Support initiatives that promote data quality and regularity of monitoring, report inaccuracies, and engage with platforms providing feedback mechanisms.

Cross-Border Data Integration:

Wish: Advocate for standardised data collection methods across political boundaries.

Your Role: Encourage policymakers to adopt unified data standards, participate in cross-border environmental initiatives, and promote awareness of the need for seamless data integration.

Community-Led Data Initiatives:

Wish: Foster community-led data collection projects to complement institutional efforts.

Your Role: Participate in citizen science projects, share local knowledge, and support initiatives that empower communities to contribute to environmental data.

Transparent AI Algorithms:

Wish: Demand transparency and ethical considerations in the development and deployment of AI algorithms for data analysis.

Your Role: Stay informed about the ethical implications of AI, engage in discussions, and advocate for responsible AI practices.

Breaking Down Data Silos:

Wish: Promote open data sharing and collaboration.

Your Role: Advocate for open data policies, participate in open-data platforms, and support organizations working towards breaking down data silos.

Closing Thoughts

As we wrap up this data-driven expedition through the UK’s environmental landscape, it’s clear that while we’ve donned our high-tech gear and trekked through the digital wilderness, there’s still a wild frontier waiting to be explored. Our satellite-guided compass may be accurate, but the terrain of environmental data is as unpredictable as British weather (I’m sat writing this at a very wet Invergeldie). So, let’s keep our data binoculars polished, our citizen science hats on, and our collective enthusiasm high. The future of understanding and protecting our environment may just be a data point, a drone flight, and hopefully a community project away.

Happy data exploring!


Rich Stockdale
Managing Director